CareWorks Health Services
Moulton Parkway STE 103C
Laguna Hills, CA 92653
of Business: 24/7 Service
provide Medical/Non-Medical Home Health Care Helping
Seniors and Disabled Adults live independently and safely,
in the place they want most, Home
24/7. Our caregivers believe in and adopt our
Ten Commandments”, the cornerstone of success
for all our “Compassionate Companions”.
provide the most compassionate care to all individuals
- begining with newborns, hospital outpatient care to
seniors. With our dedicated and committed professionals,
our experienced team of caregivers are supported by our
diligent Support Staff making them the best in the industry.
in the modern sense, is an institution for health care
providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment,
and often, but not always providing for longer-term patient stays.
Its historical meaning, until relatively recent times, was "a
place of hospitality", for example the Chelsea
Royal Hospital, established in 1681 to house veteran soldiers.
are usually funded
by the public sector, by health organizations (for
profit or nonprofit),
health insurance companies
including by direct charitable donations. Historically, however,
hospitals were often founded and funded by religious
orders or charitable individuals and leaders. Conversely,
modern-day hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians,
surgeons, and nurses,
whereas in history, this work was usually performed by the founding
religious orders or by volunteers.
Today, there are various Catholic
religious orders, such as the Alexians
and the Bon Secours Sisters
which still focus on hospital ministry.
over 17,000 hospitals in the world.
Middle Ages hospitals served different
functions to modern institutions, being almshouses
for the poor, hostels for pilgrims,
schools. The word hospital comes from the Latin
hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, hence a guest.
Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify
hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer,
hospitality, friendliness, hospitable reception. By metonymy
the Latin word then came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging,
Hospes is thus the root for the English words host
(where the p was dropped for convenience of pronunciation)
hostel and hotel.
The latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French
romance word hostel, which developed a silent s,
which letter was eventually removed from the word, the loss of
which is signified by a circumflex
in the modern French word hôtel. The German word 'Spital'
shares similar roots.
of the word differs
slightly depending on the dialect. In the U.S.,
hospital usually requires an article; in Britain
and elsewhere, the word normally is used without an article when
it is the object of a preposition and when referring to a patient
("in/to the hospital" vs. "in/to hospital"); in Canada,
both uses are found.
go to a hospital just for diagnosis,
treatment, or therapy and then leave ('outpatients') without staying
overnight; while others are 'admitted' and stay overnight or for
several days or weeks or months ('inpatients'). Hospitals usually
are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their
ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others often
are described as clinics.
type of hospital is the general hospital, which is set up to deal
with many kinds of disease and injury,
and normally has an emergency
department to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health.
Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and
facilities. Some hospitals, especially in the United States, have
their own ambulance service.
hospital typically is the major health care facility in its region,
with large numbers of beds for intensive
care and long-term care; and specialized facilities for surgery,
plastic surgery, childbirth,
bioassay laboratories, and so forth.
hospital in Canada
Types of specialized
hospitals include trauma
centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's
hospitals, seniors' (geriatric)
hospitals, and hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs
such as psychiatric
problems (see psychiatric
hospital), certain disease categories such as cardiac, oncology,
or orthopedic problems, and so forth.
may be a single building or a number of buildings on a campus.
Many hospitals with pre-twentieth-century origins began as one
building and evolved into campuses. Some hospitals are affiliated
for medical research and
the training of medical personnel such as physicians and nurses,
often called teaching hospitals. Worldwide, most hospitals are
run on a nonprofit
basis by governments or charities. Within the United States, most
hospitals are nonprofit.
hospital combines assistance to patients with teaching to
medical students and nurses and often is linked to a medical school,
nursing school or university.
facility smaller than a hospital is generally called a clinic,
and often is run by a government
agency for health services or a private partnership
of physicians (in nations where private practice is allowed).
Clinics generally provide only outpatient
room bed after a trauma
intervention, showing the highly technical equipment of modern
vary widely in the services they offer and therefore, in the departments
they have. They may have acute services such as an emergency
department or specialist trauma
unit, surgery, or urgent
care. These may then be backed up by more specialist units
such as cardiology or coronary
care unit, intensive care
unit, neurology, cancer
center, and obstetrics
will have outpatient
departments and some will have chronic treatment units such
as behavioral health services,
services, and physical therapy.
units include a dispensary or pharmacy,
pathology, and radiology,
and on the non-medical side, there often are medical
records departments, release
of information departments, Facilities Management, Maintenance,
Dining Services, and Security departments.
the Askleipion of Kos, the
best preserved instance of an Asklepieion.
visiting the sick
in a hospital, German engraving
cultures, religion and medicine were linked. The earliest documented
institutions aiming to provide cures were Egyptian
temples. In ancient Greece,
temples dedicated to the healer-god Asclepius,
known as Asclepieia (Greek:
??????????, sing. Asclepieion
???????????), functioned as centers of medical advice,
prognosis, and healing.
At these shrines, patients would enter a dream-like state of induced
sleep known as "enkoimesis" (Greek:
??????????) not unlike anesthesia,
in which they either received guidance from the deity in
a dream or were cured by surgery.
Asclepeia provided carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing
and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created
In the Asclepieion of Epidaurus,
three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names,
case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who
came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some of the
surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess
or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough
to have taken place, but with the patient in a state of enkoimesis
induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.
The worship of Asclepius was adopted by the Romans.
Under his Roman name Æsculapius, he was provided with a temple
(291 BC) on an island in the Tiber
in Rome, where similar rites were performed.
created specifically to care for the ill also appeared early in
Xian, a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled across India ca.
400 AD, recorded in his travelogue
of the Vaisya [merchant] families in them [all the kingdoms
of north India] establish in the cities houses for dispensing
charity and medicine. All the poor and destitute in the country,
orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples,
and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided
with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases.
They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and
are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go
away of themselves."
surviving encyclopedia of medicine in Sanskrit is the Carakasamhita
(Compendium of Caraka).
This text, which describes the building of a hospital is dated
by Dominik Wujastyk of the University
College London from the period between 100 BC and 150 AD.
According to Dr.Wujastyk, the description by Fa Xian is one of
the earliest accounts of a civic hospital system anywhere in the
world and, coupled with Caraka’s description of how a clinic should
be equipped, suggests that India may have been the first part
of the world to have evolved an organized cosmopolitan system
of institutionally-based medical provision.
is said to have founded at least eighteen hospitals ca. 230 BC,
with physicians and nursing staff, the expense being borne by
the royal treasury.
Stanley Finger (2001) in his book, Origins of Neuroscience:
A History of Explorations Into Brain Function, cites an Ashokan
edict translated as: "Everywhere King Piyadasi (Asoka) erected
two kinds of hospitals, hospitals for people and hospitals for
animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals,
he ordered that they be bought and planted."
However Dominik Wujastyk disputes this, arguing that the edict
indicates that Ashoka built rest houses (for travellers) instead
of hospitals, and that this was misinterpreted due to the reference
to medical herbs.
to the Mahavamsa, the ancient chronicle
of Sinhalese royalty, written in the sixth century AD, King Pandukabhaya
of Sri Lanka (reigned 437 BC to 367 BC) had lying-in-homes
and hospitals (Sivikasotthi-Sala) built in various parts of the
country. This is the earliest documentary evidence we have of
institutions specifically dedicated to the care of the sick anywhere
in the world.
Mihintale Hospital is the oldest
in the world.
Ruins of ancient hospitals in Sri Lanka
are still in existence in Mihintale,
Anuradhapura, and Medirigiriya.
teaching hospital where
students were authorized to practice methodically on patients
under the supervision of physicians as part of their education,
was the Academy of Gundishapur
in the Persian
Empire. One expert has argued that "to a very large extent,
the credit for the whole hospital system must be given to Persia".
created valetudinaria for the care of sick slaves, gladiators,
and soldiers around 100 BC, and many were identified by later
archeology. While their existence is considered proven, there
is some doubt as to whether they were as widespread as was once
thought, as many were identified only according to the layout
of building remains, and not by means of surviving records or
finds of medical tools.
of Christianity as the state
religion of the Roman Empire drove an expansion of the provision
of care. The First Council
of Nicaea in 325 AD urged the Church to provide for the poor,
sick, widows, and strangers; it ordered the construction of a
hospital in every cathedral town.
Among the earliest were those built by the physician Saint
Sampson in Constantinople
and by Basil,
bishop of Caesarea. The latter was attached to a monastery
and provided lodgings for poor and travelers, as well as treating
the sick and infirm. There was a separate section for lepers.
In the medieval
Islamic world, the word "bimaristan"
was used to indicate a hospital establishment where the ill were
welcomed, cared for and treated by qualified staff. The public
hospital in Baghdad was opened
during the Abbasid Caliphate
of Harun al-Rashid in the
The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 and thereafter public
hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Islamic
Spain and the Maghrib to Persia.
As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed
who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas
(ijazah) to those who were considered
qualified to practice, an early parallel to modern medical
The first psychiatric hospital
was built in Baghdad in 705. Many
other Islamic hospitals also often had their own wards dedicated
to mental health.
eighth and twelfth centuries AD, Muslim
hospitals developed a high standard of care. Hospitals in Baghdad
in the ninth and tenth centuries employed up to twenty-five staff
physicians and had separate wards for different conditions. The
Al-Qairawan hospital and mosque, in Tunisia,
were built under the Aghlabid
rule in 830 and was simple, but adequately equipped with halls
organized into waiting rooms, a mosque,
and a special bath. The hospital employed female nurses,
including nurses from Sudan, as well
as female physicians.
Hospitals in the Islamic world featured competency
tests for doctors, drug purity regulations,
nurses and interns,
and advanced surgical
Hospitals were also created with separate wards for specific illnesses,
so that people with contagious
diseases could be kept away from other patients.
at Les Invalides in France
showing the often close connection between historical hospitals
in Europe followed a similar pattern to the Byzantine.
They were religious communities, with care provided by monks
and nuns. (An old French term
for hospital is hôtel-Dieu,
"hostel of God.") Some were attached to monasteries; others were
independent and had their own endowments, usually of property,
which provided income for their support. Some hospitals were multi-functional
while others were founded for specific purposes such as leper
hospitals, or as refuges for the poor, or for pilgrims:
not all cared for the sick. The first Spanish hospital, founded
by the Catholic Visigoth
bishop Masona in 580AD at Mérida,
was a xenodochium designed as an inn for travellers (mostly
pilgrims to the shrine of Eulalia
of Mérida) as well as a hospital for citizens and local farmers.
The hospital's endowment consisted of farms to feed its patients
hospital founded in the Americas was the Hospital San Nicolás
de Bari [Calle Hostos] in Santo
Domingo, Distrito Nacional
Dominican Republic. Fray
Nicolás de Ovando,
Spanish governor and colonial administrator from 1502–1509, authorized
its construction on December 29, 1503. This hospital apparently
incorporated a church. The first phase of its construction was
completed in 1519, and it was rebuilt in 1552.
Abandoned in the mid-eighteenth century, the hospital now lies
in ruins near the Cathedral in Santo Domingo.
Hernán Cortés founded
the two earliest hospitals in North America: the Immaculate
Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital. The oldest
was the Immaculate Conception, now the Hospital
de Jesús Nazareno in Mexico City,
founded in 1524 to care for the poor.
hospital north of Mexico was the Hôtel-Dieu
de Québec. It was established in New
France in 1639 by three Augustinians
from l'Hôtel-Dieu de Dieppe in France. The project, begun by the
niece of Cardinal
de Richelieu was granted a royal charter by King Louis
XIII and staffed by a colonial physician, Robert
Giffard de Moncel.
the medieval concept of Christian care evolved during the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries into a secular one, but it was in the
eighteenth century that the modern hospital began to appear, serving
only medical needs and staffed with physicians and surgeons. The
Charité (founded in Berlin in
1710) is an early example.
Hospital was founded in London
in 1724 from a bequest by the wealthy merchant, Thomas
Guy. Other hospitals sprang up in London and other British
cities over the century, many paid for by private subscriptions.
In the British American colonies the Pennsylvania
General Hospital was chartered in Philadelphia
in 1751, after £2,000 from private subscription was matched by
funds from the Assembly.
When the Vienna
General Hospital opened in 1784 (instantly becoming the world's
largest hospital), physicians acquired a new facility that gradually
developed into the most important research center. During the
nineteenth century, the Second Viennese Medical School emerged
with the contributions of physicians such as Carl
Freiherr von Rokitansky, Josef
Ritter von Hebra, and Ignaz
Philipp Semmelweis. Basic medical science expanded and specialization
advanced. Furthermore, the first dermatology, eye, as well as
ear, nose, and throat clinics in the world were founded in Vienna,
being considered as the birth of specialized medicine.
By the mid-nineteenth
century most of Europe and the United States had established a
variety of public and private hospital systems. In continental
Europe the new hospitals generally were built and run from public
funds. The National Health
Service, the principle provider of health care in the United
Kingdom, was founded in 1948.
In the United
States the traditional hospital is a non-profit
hospital, usually sponsored by a religious denomination. One
of the earliest of these "almshouses" in what would become the
United States was started by William
Penn in Philadelphia in 1713.
These hospitals are tax-exempt due to their charitable purpose,
but provide only a minimum of charitable medical care. They are
supplemented by large public
hospitals in major cities and research hospitals often affiliated
with a medical school. The largest public hospital system in America
is the New
York City Health and Hospitals Corporation, which includes
Hospital, the oldest U.S. hospital, affiliated with New
York University Medical School. In the late twentieth century,
chains of for-profit
hospitals arose in the United States. In the 2000s, modern
private hospitals began to appear in developing countries such
by concentrating equipment, skilled staff and other resources
in one place, clearly provide important help to patients with
serious or rare health problems, hospitals also are criticised
for a number of faults, some of which are endemic to the system,
others which develop from what some consider wrong approaches
to health care.
often voiced is the 'industrialised' nature of care, with constantly
shifting treatment staff, which dehumanises the patient and prevents
more effective care as doctors and nurses rarely are intimately
familiar with the patient. The high working pressures often put
on the staff exacerbate such rushed and impersonal treatment.
The architecture and setup of modern hospitals often is voiced
as a contributing factor to the feelings of faceless treatment
many people complain about.
In the modern
era, hospitals are, broadly, either funded by the government of
the country in which they are situated, or survive financially
by competing in the private sector (a number of hospitals also
are still supported by the historical type of charitable or religious
In the United
Kingdom for example, a relatively comprehensive, "free at the
point of delivery" health care system exists, funded by the state.
Hospital care is thus relatively easily available to all legal
residents, although free emergency care is available to anyone,
regardless of nationality or status. As hospitals prioritize their
limited resources, there is a tendency for 'waiting lists' for
non-crucial treatment in countries with such systems, and those
who can afford it, often take out private health care to get treatment
On the other hand, many countries, including the USA, have in
the twentieth century followed a largely private-based, for-profit-approach
to providing hospital care, with few state-money supported 'charity'
hospitals remaining today.
Where for-profit hospitals in such countries admit uninsured patients
in emergency situations (such as during and after Hurricane
Katrina in the USA), they incur direct financial losses,
ensuring that there is a clear disincentive to admit such patients.
As the quality
of health care has increasingly become an issue around the world,
hospitals have increasingly had to pay serious attention to this
matter. Independent external assessment of quality is one of the
most powerful ways to assess this aspect of health care, and hospital
accreditation is one means by which this is achieved. In many
parts of the world such accreditation is sourced from other countries,
a phenomenon known as international
healthcare accreditation, by groups such as Accreditation
Canada from Canada, the Joint
Commission from the USA, the Trent
Accreditation Scheme from Great Britain, and Haute Authorité
de santé (HAS) from France.
General Hospital in Banbury, during 2010. It was built
in 1872 and slightly expanded in both 1964 and 1972 and was
nearly closed early in 2005.
buildings are designed to minimize the effort of medical personnel
and the possibility of contamination while maximizing the efficiency
of the whole system. Travel time for personnel within the hospital
and the transportation of patients between units is facilitated
and minimized. The building also should be built to accommodate
heavy departments such as radiology and operating rooms while
space for special wiring, plumbing, and waste disposal must be
allowed for in the design.
reality is that many hospitals, even those considered 'modern',
are the product of continual and often badly managed growth over
decades or even centuries, with utilitarian new sections added
on as needs and finances dictate. As a result, Dutch architectural
Wagenaar has called many hospitals:
built catastrophes, anonymous institutional complexes run by
vast bureaucracies, and totally unfit for the purpose they have
been designed for ... They are hardly ever functional, and instead
of making patients feel at home, they produce stress and anxiety."
hospitals now try to re-establish design that takes the patient's
psychological needs into account, such as providing more fresh
air, better views and more pleasant colour schemes. These ideas
hearken back to the late eighteenth century, when the concept
of providing fresh air and access to the 'healing powers of nature'
were first employed by hospital architects in improving their
major development is the change from a ward-based system (where
patients are accommodated in communal rooms, separated by movable
partitions) to one in which they are accommodated in individual
rooms. The ward-based system has been described as very efficient,
especially for the medical staff, but is considered to be more
stressful for patients and detrimental to their privacy. A major
constraint on providing all patients with their own rooms is however
found in the higher cost of building and operating such a hospital;
this causes some hospitals to charge for private rooms.